English – French – German

The mathematical garden is written in English. However, for each definition the French and the German translation of this term are indicated. As a consequence you can also use French or German terms in the search mask. For example, if you are searching for the term produit direct (direct product), you will be referred to the definition of the direct product.


The mathematical garden offers a search function.

The mathematical garden has a glossary containing the mathematical terms which are defined in its units. If you enter such a term in the search mask, then the search function will show the formal definition of this term.

For example, if you are entering the word function into the search mask, you will get among others the following results: function, choice function or composite of two functions. If you click on one of these results, you will be referred to the formal definition of this term.

If the term you are looking for is not contained in the glossary (for example because there does not exist a corresponding unit), then you will get a list of the places where this term is used in the mathematical garden.


The Internet is full of interesting information about mathematics. This category Links is intended to support you in exploring these sources. At the moment the following is available:

  • Mathematical Literature (Open Source)
    You will find a list of sources where you can look for and download mathematical literature. There is a huge amount of such information available. However, please have a careful look at the copyright information and the license conditions of each of theses pages.


The mathematical garden provides one view on the world of mathematics, and of course there are many other views often in form of textbooks. We provide lists of textbooks with respect to different branches of mathematics, for example for the theory of sets, and we want to invite you to have a look into these books for further information and for other perspectives on the material presented in the mathematical garden.

In the units we restrict the references in general to the original literature with respect to the presented results. In addition we include links to the above mentioned lists of textbooks. As an example please have a look at the literature about set theory.


The walks are the heart of the mathematical garden. However, there is a second category called Also Interesting with additional information.

There you will find the web page Mathematicians where we offer bibliographic information about certain mathematicians. The first mathematician presented in this way in the mathematical garden is Richard Dedekind.

You will find a list of their publications and – if available – information about collected works and biographies about these mathematicians. We want to invite you to browse through this original literature. Perhaps you will be inspired to read some of the original papers.

A Technical Hint about the Use of Links

At the end a little technical hint: There are two sorts of links in a unit. One sort of links refers to other websites or to other units within the mathematical garden. You will come back to the current unit by using the back button of your browser.

The second sort of links refers to some text within the same unit, for example to a definition or a theorem. You will see a small red arrow on the right. Clicking on this arrow will bring you back to the text with the link.

New Versions

Note that the website and the pdf documents are regularly updated. The pdf documents have a version number such that you can easily see whether there have been some changes. A change lock giving some information about the changes can be found at the end of each unit.